Philosophy & AI

How to make sense of the I in AI?

Sufficiently autonomous AI systems of today are intelligent to some degree. The degree is given by their ability to make predictions.

I wrote a second PhD thesis in the field of philosophy of technology at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany, where I worked at the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS), the leading institute for technology assessment in Germany and worldwide. My doctoral work was supervised by Prof. Dr. Armin Grunwald from KIT and Prof. Dr. Alfred Nordmann from TU Darmstadt. 

You should read this book if you wonder and wish to find out:

  • why entrepreneurs are the incarnation of how we humans became smart. Because the evolutionary process from figuring out simple causes and effects to tool use in the cave to light up a fire to developing complex technology (as we tech entrepreneurs do it today) has led to more intelligence… and there is more to be said…

  • why academic studies, including PhDs, will become a less important qualification and skill in the future (bad news for me 😉)

  • why we can stay calm and drink coffee even though job descriptions keep changing and novel job profiles will be created in the wake of AI, and even though some studies predict that machines and AI will take your job in the not too distant future

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Here is a selection of my publications that underline my research interests and competencies in philosophy.
For a full publication list, please reach out.

Philosophy of Technology

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2022 Is AI intelligent? An assessment of Artificial Intelligence, 70 years after Turing. Technology in Society, 68: 101893.

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2022. A Philosophical View on Singularity and Strong AI. AI & Society: Knowledge, Culture and Communication.

  • Hoffmann, C.H., & Hahn, B. 2020. Decentered ethics in the machine era and guidance for AI regulation. AI & Society: Knowledge, Culture and Communication, 35: 635–644.


Business Ethics

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2021. Vom Irrglauben an Nutzenmaximierer. Die Rolle der Erwartungsnutzenmaximierung für rationale und ethische Entscheidungen. zfwu - Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Unternehmensethik, 2: 312–331.

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2020. Klugheits- versus Metaklugheits- und moralischen Überlegungen anhand eines Umweltspiels. Was das Modell des Gefangenendilemmas über Kooperation bei Fragen des Klimawandels lehrt. Forum Wirtschaftsethik. Available at:

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2019. Economic Rationality, the Transaction Cost Theory, and Morality. An Extended Approach. Journal for Business, Economics & Ethics (zfwu), 20: 31–51.


Philosophy & History of Mathematics

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2022. Der Gödelsche Unvollständigkeitssatz und seine philosophischen Implikationen für die Betrachtung von Geist und Künstlicher Intelligenz. Salzburger Jahrbuch für Philosophie.

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2022. Der Hauptsatz in der Ars conjectandi: Interpretationen von Bernoullis Beiträgen zu den Anfängen der mathematischen Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie. Siegener Beiträge zur Geschichte und Philosophie der Mathematik.

  • Hoffmann, C.H. 2021. Infini-Rien: Ist Pascals Wettargument formallogisch ungültig? Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie,